03 June, 2010

Landmarks in Insulin's journey!!

1922 Banting, Best, Collip use bovine insulin extract in humans
1923
Eli Lilly produces commercial quantities of much purer bovine insulin than Banting et al. had used
1923
Farbwerke Hoechst, one of the forerunner's of today's Sanofi Aventis, produces commercial quantities of bovine insulin in Germany
1923
Hagedorn founds the Nordisk Insulin laboratorium in Denmark – forerunner of today's Novo Nordisk
1926
Nordisk receives a Danish charter to produce insulin as a non-profit
1936
Canadians D.M. Scott, A.M. Fisher formulate a zinc insulin mixture and license it to Novo
1936
Hagedorn discovers that adding protamine to insulin prolongs the duration of action of insulin
1946
Nordisk formulates Isophane porcine insulin aka Neutral Protamine Hagedorn or NPH insulin
1946
Nordisk crystallizes a protamine and insulin mixture
1950
Nordisk markets NPH insulin
1953
Novo formulates Lente porcine and bovine insulins by adding zinc for longer lasting insulin
1955
Frederick Sanger determines the amino acid sequence of insulin
1969
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin solves the crystal structure of insulin by x-ray crystallography
1973
Purified monocomponent (MC) insulin is introduced
1973
The U.S. officially "standardized" insulin sold for human use in the U.S. to U-100 (100 units per milliliter). Prior to that, insulin was sold in different strengths, including U-80 (80 units per milliliter) and U-40 formulations (40 units per milliliter), so the effort to "standardize" the potency aimed to reduce dosage errors and ease doctors' job of prescribing insulin for patients.
1978
Genentech produces biosynthetic 'human' insulin in Escheria coli bacteria using recombinant DNA techniques, licenses to Eli Lilly
1981
Novo Nordisk chemically and enzymatically converts porcine to 'human' insulin
1982
Genentech synthetic 'human' insulin (above) approved
1983
Eli Lilly and Company produces biosynthetic 'human' insulin with recombinant DNA technology, Humulin
1985
Axel Ullrich sequences a human cell membrane insulin receptor.
1988
Novo Nordisk produces recombinant biosynthetic 'human' insulin
1996
Lilly Humalog "lispro" insulin analogue approved.
2000
Sanofi Aventis Lantus insulin "glargine" analogue approved for clinical use in the US and Europe.
2004
Sanofi Aventis Apidra insulin "glulisine" insulin analogue approved for clinical use in the US.
2005
MedActiv invents the world's smallest fridge, the Medifridge, to safely transport insulin for patients.
2006
Novo Nordisk Levemir "detemir" insulin analogue approved for clinical use in the US.

3 comments :

  1. Pl post some dog pictures. I hate cat.
    You may even discuss about the upcoming oral insulin by BIOCON.

    ReplyDelete
  2. i will try madam.. posting cat pics is like a caution - ALL BEAUTIFUL THINGS ARE NOT TRUSTWORTHY (options may vary)

    ReplyDelete

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